SUN Database: Exploring a Large Collection of Scene Categories.
Xiao, J., Ehinger , K.A., Hays, J., Torralba, A., & Oliva, A. Submitted manuscript

Progress in scene understanding requires reasoning about the rich and diverse visual environments that make up our daily experience. To this end, we propose the Scene Understanding (SUN) database, a nearly exhaustive collection of scenes categorized at the same level of specificity as human discourse. The database contains 908 distinct scene categories and over 100,000 images. To better understand this large scale taxonomy of scene categories, we first perform three human experiments: we quantify human scene recognition accuracy, we measure how “typical” each image is of its assigned scene category, and we estimate high-level “spatial envelope” properties for each scene category. Next, we perform computational experiments: scene recognition with recent global image features, indoor vs outdoor classification, and “scene detection” in which we relax the assumption that one image depicts only one scene category. Finally, we relate human experiments to machine performance and explore the relationship between human and machine recognition errors and the relationship between image “typicality” and machine recognition accuracy.